In fact, he intended it specifically as an anti-war statement. In an interview with a New York newspaper at the time of the premiere, Britten said: The question remains whether music—abstract sound—can express anti-war or any other sentiments. The Sinfonia da Requiem makes that same statement, but at an abstract, purely instrumental level. The Sinfonia is concentrated music. Its three movements, in a slow-fast-slow sequence that is performed without pause, span barely 20 minutes, and Britten surprisingly anchors all three movements around the tonality of D: D minor in the stern initial movements, D major in the consoling finale.
The Lacrymosa , which traditionally announces the day when mankind faces judgment, bursts to life with great explosions of sound that resolve into a numbed, steady tread. Secondary material is based on the leap of a seventh, but the swaying motion of the opening is never far away, and after a thunderous climax, that rhythm leads the movement to its subdued close.
The movement rises to another climax, then shatters into fragments. But this peace is not long-lived. Gradually the swaying melody of the beginning insinuates itself, and Britten plays this up to a tremendous climax before the furies subside and the Sinfonia closes with a prayer for peace in which D major is affirmed quietly but clearly. July 29, , Endenich, near Bonn, Germany. But contentment was brief. Marital life is more in the easy-going French style. Both Robert and Clara were distressed by the noisiness of their first apartment, although a Rhine excursion at the end of the month and a move to quieter quarters helped.
The day Schumann finished the Cello Concerto he conducted the first of his ten subscription concerts. Nonetheless, it soon became inescapably clear that Schumann was unequal to his new position, and in October he was asked to resign. Always subject to depression, Schumann threw himself into the Rhine on February 27, This suicide attempt was not his first. He was rescued and committed into Dr. The Cello Concerto—and this always comes as a surprise—is the first important one since the beautiful examples by Boccherini from the s.
Clara Schumann was delighted by the Cello Concerto. The following October she wrote: The romantic quality, the vivacity, the freshness and humor, also the highly interesting interweaving of violoncello and orchestra are indeed wholly ravishing, and what euphony and deep feeling one finds in all the melodic passages!
In the Cello Concerto, each movement is linked to the next, and the middle one, even while it blooms in gloriously expressive song, has something of the character of a bridge or an intermezzo. The concerto begins with three solemn chords for woodwinds with pizzicato strings. They are not, by the way, static and unalterable; rather, Schumann constantly finds new harmonies, rhythms and colors for them, although they are always and instantly recognizable.
And to make the bridge from the slow movement to the finale, Schumann turns the cello theme itself into a gripping recitative, fascinatingly shared by soloist and orchestra in a moment both tender and full of pain. Quiet though it is, it suggests the opening of a theater curtain, and the performer who stands revealed is an inspired singer who gives us an expansive and constantly developing—that is, non-repeating—melody. Here is Schumann at his most personal, his most poignantly vulnerable. Only when this lyric utterance is done does the orchestra ground the music with a vigorous and impassioned paragraph.
A brilliant passage in triplets ends the exposition. The development is a kind of contest between virtuoso display and lyricism, and the chugging triplets are constantly interrupted—almost rebuked, it seems—by reappearances of parts of the opening melody in ever more distant and mysterious keys. After the recapitulation, the opening wind chords return, now heard from a deeply strange harmonic perspective. This time, the cello responds not with its first melody, but with a brief transition that gently sets the music down in F major.
The slow movement has begun, and Schumann gives us a new melody, one full of melancholy downward curves. Like a chorus of sympathetic mourners, woodwinds echo the ends of the phrases. The passage reminds us that Tchaikovsky was one of the great Schumann-lovers. The accompaniment is notable, for along with neutral pizzicato chords we hear a soft countermelody played by another solo cello. After the urgent recitative that forms the bridge into the finale, Schumann gives us a more swift-moving music than any we have yet heard in the piece. Unfortunately, it is likely to sound not brilliant but just damnably difficult.
Schumann relies much on sequences, and it takes a special mix of planning and spontaneity to bring out the energy in this music. The Prades Festival recording by Casals and Ormandy shows wonderfully what can be done. The drooping two-note phrases from the slow movement are often heard in the background. Schumann moves into the coda by way of an accompanied cadenza an inspiration to Elgar and perhaps also to Schoenberg and Walton in their violin concertos.
But Schumann was right, he really was: Using some material he had sketched in for a movie score, Vaughan Williams began his Sixth Symphony in about and completed it in At the beginning of , Vaughan Williams revised the third movement, Scherzo , clarifying some of the orchestration as well as adding a new countertheme for brass in a couple of places. This version of the symphony has become the standard. Ending, as it does, in 11 or 12 minutes of chill, unbroken pianissimo , the Sixth Symphony hardly seems like a piece designed for success, yet the reception at the first performance was overwhelming, and it took only a little over two years for the work to achieve performances.
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In the s, he had had a hard time persuading some people that the Fourth Symphony was not political and moral commentary about Hitler and Mussolini. In , the year the Sixth Symphony premiered, Hiroshima was a recent memory, the Soviet Union had just cut off road and rail traffic between Berlin and the West, and nuclear war was coming to be an ever-present threat.
Without question, the Sixth Symphony is a disturbing piece, full of anguish, and it begins with a cry. In defiance of the key designation in its title, E minor, the symphony begins resolutely one half-step up, in F minor. The mood, for the moment at least, is savage. It is immediately repeated in the bass with the fussy 16ths on top. When this agitation subsides, an oddly saucy accompaniment starts up, to which various woodwinds soon add a tune with a stammer. For a moment the sound gets to be quite Broadway, partly because the saxophone climbs into a high register where it is extremely prominent.
There is one more theme to come, a spacious D-major tune that sounds like the old familiar Vaughan Williams. The saucy accompaniment continues right through this. The close is quiet. The final E in the cellos and basses hangs over into the first measure of the second movement.
A drumroll and a fanfare introduce an unharmonized pianissimo passage for the strings, which builds, then recedes. When we first heard this, it was part of a theme; now it takes on a life of its own and is bent on destroying whatever thematic or other musical activity is going on. It cows the orchestra into silence; trumpets and drums, again pianissimo after their domineering forte, appear to have the last word. The English horn muses for a moment on the unharmonized string theme, but under its last notes, the persistent, destructive rhythm, now in the sullen, dark colors of timpani, bass drum and pizzicato low strings, reminds us that it is still there, that this nightmare could return.
It is a sardonic Shostakovich-esque scherzo, polyphonic in texture, and based on a theme with running 16th-notes. Constant Lambert tells us that the only thing to do with a folk tune is to play it soft and repeat it loud. This is not a folk tune but the same difficulty seems to crop up. This time it is the bass clarinet which, descending through two octaves, builds the bridge into the Epilogue. The muted brass sigh three times, and a solo cello, unmuted but of course still pianissimo , responds to their dejection with a new musical idea.
The oboe is the instrument that feels most free to sing out expressively in melodies of wide compass. The sounds themselves become ghostly, with string tremolandos and bell-like harmonics on the harp. Vaughan Williams settles into an uncertain seesawing between chords of E-flat major and E minor, which have G as a note in common.
A performance that sounds final is not a good performance. Tender string harmonies set the scene of wide open prairies, while clashing keys and cowboy tunes add excitement along the journey. The electric bass is prominent in the rapid-fire, jazz-laced finale. Early in Aaron Copland was approached by Lincoln Kirstein, director of the Ballet Caravan, who wished to commission a ballet based on the life of Billy the Kid. But Copland was not drawn to this subject, and he felt a particular aversion to cowboy music: The words are usually delightful and the manner of singing needs no praise from me.
But neither the words nor the delivery are of much use in a purely orchestral ballet score, so I was left with the tunes themselves, which, I repeat, are often less than exciting. As far as I was concerned, this ballet could be written without benefit of the poverty-stricken tunes Billy himself must have known. Kirstein assured Copland that he need not use actual cowboy tunes in the ballet, but as the composer left to spend the summer of in Paris, Kirstein gave him several collections of cowboy songs to look over.
And then a strange thing happened, softening Copland: The premiere of Billy the Kid was a success, and Copland arranged an orchestral suite from its music, preserving about two-thirds of the original score. The suite begins with The Open Prairie , which creates a sense of great space, and the steady tread of two French horns marks the appearance of humans within this vastness. Suddenly we are on a Street in a Frontier Town , full of dizzy human energy. A reprise of the opening prairie music leads to the Prairie Night Card Game at Night — a nocturne for woodwinds, trumpet and strings—and this proceeds into the Gun Battle , with its booming drums and spatters of gunfire.
Copland sets the dance-tune in C major and its accompaniment in C-sharp. Death —his final breaths are heard in the quasi tremolando solo violin. Its epic sense of space, use of cowboy tunes, and concise evocation of a raw frontier town—replete with honky-tonk revelry, gunfights and the lonely hero—have become part of the imagination of every subsequent composer who writes music about the American West.
January 18, third movement ; May 3, full concerto. Jeff Beal may be best known as a composer of music for films and television, but his newly-written Flute Concerto has its origins not in Hollywood—nor the Washington D. Instead the genesis came in Stockholm, Sweden, where Beal worked out the basic parameters of the concerto over coffee and conversation with flutist Sharon Bezaly in June Beal recalls that inspiring meeting: The light of the northern summer sun bathing the harbor was a perfect metaphor for what she wanted: A concerto full of joy, energy and rhythm, with some of the eclectic jazz sensibilities of my scoring on House Of Cards.
The seeds for the project were planted earlier in when Bezaly and BIS Records founder Robert von Bahr reached out to Beal, whose music they knew through House of Cards , and invited him to Stockholm to hear Bezaly play. But a significant part of my vocation as a musician is the aspiration to inspire the great composers of our time to write new and ground-breaking music, so that future generations are able to breathe new life into our present, their past, in a perpetual celebration of timeless music.
This particular project came near a time of personal grieving for Bezaly, which impacted the concept and structure of the piece. Beal further recalls from their conversation in Stockholm: As painful as a loss of a parent can be, her deep affection for her mother was certainly part of my inspiration for the second movement. We also spoke about the beauty of memorable melodies, and kept returning to this idea of rhythm and energy.
The first and second movements have never been performed for audiences prior to this week, making this the world premiere of the concerto in its full form. After graduating from the Eastman School of Music, where he met his wife, operatic soprano Joan Beal, he pursued a career in New York City as a jazz performer, recording artist and composer. In the mids Beal moved to Los Angeles, where in he made his breakthrough into film music by scoring the Academy Award-winning film Pollock.
The well-known theme music for that show is a family affair: Aside from his work for media, Beal has composed commissioned works for the St. The sole atypical addition to the orchestra is an electric bass guitar. The tone of the concerto is set from the earliest measures: Harmonies are creative but gentle on the ears, and staccato articulation dominates. Occasional rippling tremolos played by the two clarinets are among the distinctive touches, and the last word is given to rising solo violin. In the golden days of the Renaissance and early Baroque age, most male composers began their musical lives as boy sopranos trained in church choirs.
Ultimately, instrumental virtuosity superseded the human voice. However, the patron who commissioned the Violin Concerto had sought a different effect. The young composer developed the first two movements of this Opus 14 while residing in the idyllic Swiss village of Sils Maria, but like other expatriate Americans, fled Europe after the Nazis invaded Poland. Back in Philadelphia, Barber presented the opening movements to Fels—but they did not please. Fels had anticipated flashy music of the kind that triggers cheering, and this thoughtful discourse between soloist and orchestra was too lyrical for him.
Barber responded by dashing off a showpiece finale demanding consummate skills—but this was judged too difficult! Soon, however, a promising Curtis student named Herman Baumel delivered a polished reading of the finale. Baumel also gave a private performance of the concerto with the Curtis Orchestra under Fritz Reiner and played it with the Philadelphia Orchestra in rehearsal before the official premiere.
Fels was unable to reclaim money already dispensed to Barber, who had spent it in Europe. So the businessman compromised by paying half the fee and surrendering the rights of first performance to the composer. The traditionalist side of Barber as well as his progressive impulses—irregular rhythms and sometimes edgy dissonances—are shown to advantage in this moving work, which has commanded a solid niche in the repertory for more than half a century. The music is not hard to follow. There are no contests here, only a harmony of dialogue between partners, the big orchestra and the little violin, cast as a wordless troubadour of intense personal emotion.
The opening movement includes moments of dark agitation and high intensity, not unlike profound conversation. The passion is shared in the development and a full reprise incorporating a brief cadenza. Cellos take up the singing, which spreads across the orchestra before—heralded by a horn solo—the soloist speaks out with a fresh idea, initially tranquil, but soon growing passionate.
In abrupt contrast, drumming launches the spiky finale, a swift perpetual motion conclusion which sustains triplet rhythms almost throughout, especially in the rapid bowing of the soloist, driving headlong to the close. Energy is the essence of this bracing movement. In the s such composers as Sergei Prokofiev in the Soviet Union, Silvestre Revueltas in Mexico and Virgil Thomson in our own country were able to work in direct collaboration with their respective screen directors in developing and shaping films in which music enjoyed an unprecedented prominence.
This new type of partnership led to films in which music was used not only to augment the dramatic mood, but frequently in place of words to create the various moods. It happens not infrequently that a composer writing for a film may produce more music than is actually used. The suite was completed on July 5, , and was first performed on August 11 of that year by Bernstein and the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood.
The score of the entire film is built from only five or six thematic ideas which, however, are constantly being combined with each other and transformed into new shapes to meet the changing dramatic requirements of the story. Because the original film score is not just scraps of background music but a tightly organized symphonic structure, the concert suite derived from it makes complete musical sense The broad theme that opens the suite serves also, in a much grander version, to end it. In the film, this music has the same double function: This striking passage starts with the percussion instruments alone—softly at first, then rising to a climax.
The whole passage then becomes the basis for what is essentially a set of variations, each working up to its own climax. In the picture this music is always associated with violence—sometimes warning of it in advance, sometimes actually accompanying it, sometimes recalling it.
For example, the first time it is heard for percussion instruments alone the screen shows an ordinary street scene; but the shocking contrast between the prosaic, static street and the brutal, dynamic music produces an ominous warning of tragedy to come. In the Symphonic Suite this section has the role of a scherzo, contrasting with the flowing quality of the love music that precedes it.
In the film it is heard under the climactic fight between Terry and the racketeer Johnny Friendly. Starting as softly as possible, it grows as it marches irresistibly toward the last powerful chord. In the final phrases the Love theme is blended with it. The first and second movements have never been performed for audiences prior to next month, making the Minnesota Orchestra's performance the world premiere of the concerto in its full form.
En Saga Hypnotic rhythms and dark orchestral coloring permeate this tone poem, which conveys the sense of a primordial adventure, fiercely urgent, and tragic as well as exhilarating. Zigeunerweisen Gypsy Airs A riveting lament, embellished with an array of trills and dramatic ornamentation, leads to a furious, brilliant and breathtaking conclusion. The second movement, based on a repeating rhythm, has been an audience favorite since its premiere two centuries ago.
December 8, , Tavastehus, Finland Died: In his mids Sibelius studied for a year in Berlin, and then for another year in Vienna. He had at first intended to be a violinist, but in Berlin he heard the Aino Symphony of his senior compatriot Robert Kajanus, which was all the impetus he needed for giving a higher priority to composing, and to turn his own creative effort toward the furtherance of Finnish nationalism.
Early in in Vienna, Sibelius completed the first of his own several works based on the Kalevala: Kajanus saw to it that the Kullervo Symphony was performed in Helsinki that April, and its success prompted him to ask Sibelius for a shorter piece that could be performed more frequently.
Sibelius responded, at about the time of his wedding, in June of that year, with En Saga , in which he recycled material from an octet for winds and strings he had composed in Berlin. The new piece was not a success when the composer conducted the premiere in Helsinki, on February 16, , but nine years later, when Ferruccio Busoni invited him to present En Saga in Berlin, he subjected the score to a major revision, which made such a positive impression when he introduced it in Helsinki on November 2, , that it immediately took its place in the general repertory.
It was not until four decades later still, when he had written the last of his works and the world had celebrated his 75th birthday, that Sibelius said anything at all about the extra-musical significance of this work. I had undergone a number of painful experiences at the time, and in no other work have I revealed myself so completely. It is for this reason that I find all literary explanations quite alien.
The latter title, in fact, has a meaning similar to that of En Saga , but with less fearsome connotations: But it is powerfully evocative in a more general sense, and it may touch us on deeper levels—may convey a sense of some primordial adventure—involving elemental forces rather than individuals, and both tragic and exhilarating in its fierce urgency. The themes, strong and persistent, seem to grow directly out of one another, in the nature of metamorphoses. The rhythms are hypnotic, the darkish orchestral coloring with a bass drum replacing , rather than augmenting, the timpani as deftly achieved as anything from Rimsky-Korsakov, Strauss or Ravel.
The overall effect is one of striking originality, a style as unlikely to be successfully imitated or duplicated as it is to be mistaken for that of anyone but Sibelius himself. July 30, , Lublin, Poland Died: March 31, , Moscow, Russia. Most of the violin heroes from Paganini, who was born in , to Adolf Busch, who died in , were composers of considerable competence. It is different today, when a violinist such as Joshua Bell, daring to write his own cadenza for the Brahms concerto and doing so with flair and originality, is very much an exception among his colleagues.
Henri Wieniawski, born a half-century after Paganini, was one of the most esteemed Romantic violinist-composers. His mother, Regina Wolff, was an able pianist, and his uncle, Edouard Wolff, quite a celebrated one, as well as an active composer. At the age of eight, when Henri had already been playing the violin for some years, he was admitted to the Paris Conservatory, where he soon entered the class of Lambert Massart, one of the pedagogic eminences of the day.
The violinist Leopold Auer recalled running into Wieniawski at the gambling tables at Wiesbaden, Germany. On tour with the great Anton Rubinstein, Wieniawski thought he had figured out a way to beat the system and bankrupt the casino; when that happened, he told Auer, he would give up concertizing, play only for his pleasure, and concentrate on composing.
He lived in Saint Petersburg, where he was a ubiquitous presence on the musical scene, but his career constantly took him all over Europe. In he began a two-year tour of the United States, giving concerts with Rubinstein in the first year alone, then continuing on almost as exhausting a schedule with the soprano Pauline Lucca. Wieniawski returned to Europe with shattered health and a lot of money.
But being the sort of man who spent whatever he earned as soon as he could, he was under continuing pressure to stay on the road and play. A heart condition gave him ever more trouble. In November he collapsed during a performance in Berlin of his Concerto No. His colleague Joseph Joachim was in the audience, and Wieniawski asked him to finish the concert for him. A month later, in Moscow, he was obliged to break off a performance of the Kreutzer Sonata after the first movement. Once again, though, the tour had to be called off so that Wieniawski could enter hospital in Odessa.
When he died he was not yet For all his physical tribulations, Wieniawski was a cheerful sort and delightful company, a man who could never resist a pun and was a captivating raconteur. His marriage to an Irishwoman, Isabella Hampton, brought him much happiness. His compositions of course demand these qualities. Wieniawski composed his Second Violin Concerto in and gave the first performance on November 27 of that year in Saint Petersburg, with Nikolai Rubinstein conducting.
Heifetz cut all that out and came straight to what he conceived to be the point, namely Himself. He is not quite as adventurous, fluid and skilled as his older contemporary Henri Vieuxtemps, but he is streets ahead of such predecessors as Paganini and Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. A shapely and spacious phrase for clarinet alone makes a bridge into the second movement, a Romance.
Here Wieniawski is at his most likeable and touching best. The melody is lovely, and the accompaniment imaginative and euphonious. The finale is designed to bring the house down, and for this purpose the soloist regales us with flying 16th-notes, a reprise of a wonderfully soulful theme from the first movement, and an absolutely irresistible spell of gypsy-fiddling abandon. March 10, , Pamplona, Spain Died: September 20, , Biarritz, France. Sarasate was known in his day primarily as a performer, but he punched above his weight as a composer, rising to fame in the generation just after Paganini.
His music, Zigeunerweisen in particular, is yet more evidence that the composers who have written most intelligently and virtuosically for violin have also been violinists—Vivaldi, Mozart, Sibelius, Bruch and Paganini easily come to mind. As is usually true with prodigious musical talent, one of his parents was a musician—in this case, his father, a violinist and military bandmaster who taught five-year-old Pablo the basics. As a teen, Sarasate quickly rose to fame as a fearless virtuoso with an unmatched technique that won not only ardent fans, but major competitions in Europe as well.
This launched an international touring career that brought him to America twice and regularly to London, where he took audiences by storm. Not since Paganini had a fiddler caused this kind of sensation. He inspired a number of important composers to write pieces for him: Early in his career, Sarasate began to perform his own works: Written in and recorded by every major violin virtuoso since, it has become a staple for violinists, often as a concert encore.
Zigeunerweisen begins with about seven minutes of slow, soulful melodies, leading into a spectacular two-minute dash for the finish line—extremely demanding of the performer—that leaves audiences breathless. December 16, , Bonn, Germany Died: March 26, , Vienna, Austria. Beethoven turned 40 in December , and things were going very well. Over the decade-long span of that style, to , Beethoven essentially re-imagined music and its possibilities.
The works that crystallized the heroic style—the Eroica and the Fifth Symphony—unleashed a level of violence and darkness previously unknown in music and then triumphed over them. In the fall of , Beethoven began a new symphony, his Seventh, which would differ sharply from those two famous predecessors. Gone is the sense of cataclysmic struggle and hard-won victory. But it may be safest to leave the issue of meaning aside and instead listen to the Seventh simply as music.
There had never been music like this before, nor has there been since: Tremendous chords punctuate the slow beginning, which gives way to a poised duet for oboes.
This simple dotted rhythm saturates virtually every measure of the movement, as theme, as accompaniment, as motor rhythm, always hammering into our consciousness. Beethoven could not decide whether to mark it Andante , a walking tempo, or Allegretto , a moderately fast pace. The opening sounds like a series of static chords—the theme itself occurs quietly inside those chords—and Beethoven simply repeats this theme, varying it as it proceeds.
This pattern punctuates the entire movement: The ending is remarkable: This conclusion is virtually Bacchanalian in its wild power. Prelude to Khovanshchina Delicate harmonies, sweet folk tunes and morning church bells animate this exquisite tone poem, extracted from an unfinished Russian nationalist opera, that depicts dawn on the Moscow River.
It imitates the form of a classical symphony until its icy third movement, scored without brass, as gorgeous melodies rise and fall. Dueling critics have interpreted the finale as either triumphant or bitingly sarcastic. March 21, , Karevo, Russia Died: March 28, , St. When he died from the effects of alcoholism at age 42, he left several of his most important compositions unfinished, including the opera Khovanshchina , to which Rimsky-Korsakov then put his hand.
In the meantime we must make do with the attractive orchestral episodes that have carved a place in the concert hall. His most eloquent expression of the national soul was in songs and operas, while his purely orchestral efforts were minimal. In he began to collect historical and musical materials for Khovanshchina. Instead of drafting a cogent scenario, Mussorgsky assembled fragments of a libretto, being carried away by the historical sources into which he delved. By he began to create the music, which occupied him intermittently until the summer of Noting his obsessive drinking, his friends worried about the future of the opera.
Their fears were not unfounded, and Khovanshchina loomed importantly in the pile of unpublished manuscripts left at his death in It was the first work to be rescued by Rimsky-Korsakov. Once completed and orchestrated, the opera was produced by an amateur group in St. Petersburg on February 21, Rimsky-Korsakov omitted some passages that were subsequently orchestrated by Ravel and Stravinsky; Shostakovich also produced his own version and orchestration of the opera.
The first act of Khovanshchina begins at daybreak in front of a church in a Moscow square. As orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov, the principal theme is announced by an oboe against shimmering background of tremulous and divided strings before being taken up by other colorful instrumental combinations. The image of bells, signaling early Mass, infiltrates the music. April 1, , Oneg, Novgorod, Russia Died: March 28, , Beverly Hills, California. In the spring of Rachmaninoff, then 61, and his wife moved into a villa they had just built on Lake Lucerne in Switzerland.
They were delighted by the house, its opulent size and its view across the beautiful lake. Rachmaninoff was especially touched to find a surprise waiting for him there: Rachmaninoff spent the summer gardening and landscaping, and he also composed. Paganini had written that devilish tune, full of rhythmic spring and chromatic tension, in , and he himself had followed it with 12 variations.
And there may be more to come.
ECOLOGY LUSAKA HOODIE
After considering several titles for his new work, the composer settled on Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, a title that places the focus on melody and somewhat disguises the ingenious variation-technique at the center of this music. The first performance, with the composer as soloist, took place in Baltimore on November 7, , with Leopold Stokowski conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra. The Rhapsody has a surprising beginning: Some of the variations last a matter of minutes, while others whip past almost before we know it several are as short as 19 seconds. Here it appears in the solo part in the seventh and tenth variations, and eventually it drives the work to its climax.
The soloist states this variation in its simplest form, and then strings take it up and turn it into a soaring nocturne. From here on, the tempo picks up, and the final six variations accelerate to a monumental climax. The excitement builds, the Dies Irae is stamped out by the full orchestra, and suddenly, like a puff of smoke, the Rhapsody vanishes before us on two quick strokes of sound. It is intended to be Rachmaninoff on steroids: September 25, , St.
August 9, , Moscow, Russia. Before that, Shostakovich had been the bright young star of Soviet music, hailed as a product of that system and acclaimed around the world for his witty, sardonic music. Now, virtually overnight, he found himself in disgrace, his career in ruins and he himself perhaps ticketed for a labor camp.
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After a great deal of soul searching, Shostakovich composed his Fifth Symphony very quickly between April 18 and July 20, , and its triumphant premiere in Leningrad on November 21 of that year signaled his artistic and political rehabilitation. There is a great deal of superb music in the Fifth Symphony. Almost incidentally, Shostakovich introduces the simple rhythmic motif short-short-long that will saturate and unify the entire symphony.
There follows a beautiful episode: But the wonder is that this peaceful theme, which sounds completely new, is actually a subtle transformation of the powerful canonic introduction to the Symphony. This sort of ingenious transformation of material marks the entire Fifth Symphony. The entrance of the piano signals the beginning of the development. It has been said that in this symphony Shostakovich does not so much develop his material as brutalize it, and now themes that had been peaceful at their introduction are made shrill, almost hysterical in their intensity.
The movement reaches a climax on a furious tamtam stroke as brass stamp out the rhythmic motif. After all this fury, Shostakovich resolves the tensions beautifully: Many have felt the influence of Mahler in the bittersweet second movement that waltzes past in quickstep time. The third movement is more complex. Its scoring is unique: Shostakovich eliminates the brass, divides the strings into eight parts, and gives a prominent role to the harp, piano and celesta. He wrote this movement in one great arc, and the Largo features lean textures, an icy sound and some of his most beautiful melodies.
It rises to a great climax, then falls away to end quietly on the spooky sound of harp harmonics. Out of this quiet, the finale rips to life with pounding timpani, ringing brass and boundless energy; an angular second subject arrives in the solo trumpet over whirring strings. The militaristic bombast of this movement has bothered some listeners, but Shostakovich rescues it by his stunning transformation of this bluff beginning. Gradually these themes are made to slow down and sing, and material that had been strident on its first appearance yields unsuspected melodic riches in the subdued center section.
Shostakovich gathers his forces and drives the symphony to a triumphant, if somewhat raucous, close in D major. In the center of this composition—conceived lyrically from beginning to end—I saw a man with all his experiences. The finale resolves the tragically tense impulses of the earlier movements into optimism and the joy of living.
These critics have been able to accept this symphony only by declaring the entire piece ironic. Its triumph, they say, is hollow, a conscious nose-thumbing at a political regime that insisted on happy endings from its artists. To such extremes have ideological critics been driven by their politics—and it is clear that the Cold War lives on in the minds of those engaged in this debate.
Heard for itself, it remains an exciting work, satisfying both emotionally and artistically. Conceived as a love token from the composer to his wife Cosima, it was premiered as a surprise to her on Christmas morning, with the musicians performing on the staircase to her bedroom. Among the musical highlights are the cascading notes in the piano cadenzas, the poetic Quasi adagio second movement and the unusually prominent use of the triangle. As it progresses, the music grows in confidence and concludes with emotional, triumphant gestures. May 22, , Leipzig, Germany Died: February 13, , Venice, Italy.
History, Births, and Deaths for September 1 69 - Traditional date of destruction of Jerusalem - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Marshall Jewell of Conn takes office - Sydney General Post Office opens in Australia - A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", to disband. Michael Church, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. The final version of the Iron Cross was also instituted on this date.
Muammar al-Gaddafi to power, which was later transferred to the People's Committees. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Indian theologian d.
Herbert Norman, Canadian diplomat d. Richards, American politician d. Richard Stevens, Zambian computer scientist b. Burnside, American musician b. Sep 2 , He will make 14 of them over the next several months. Zeppelin the USS Shenandoah crashes, killing The Tibetan community observes this date as the Democracy Day. All people on board are killed.
Frye, American politician d. Weyland, American military figure b. Sep 9 , National Broadcasting Company formed. A bomb explodes outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta, killing 10 people. Births on September 9 - Aurelian, Roman Emperor d. Sep 10 , This ties them for 1st place. Fitch, American army officer d. Sep 14 , Union troops chases away Confederates - Battle at South Mountain: A similar service is held in Canada on Parliament Hill, the largest vigil ever held in the nation's capital.
Gosney, American eugenicist b. Karagatsis, Greek author b. Goddard, American state government official b. Sep 16 , Hulme, English writer d. Rey, American children's author, creator of "Curious George" d. Subbulakshmi, Indian singer d. Peter, Canadian born educator and writer d. Arkoff, American film producer b. Sep 17 , The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn. The Allegheny Arsenal explosion results in the single largest civilian disaster during the war. The Russian city of Bryansk is liberated from Nazis.
Ramasamy, Indian Social Reformer d. Sep 21 , The death toll is estimated at people. Phillies start a 10 game losing streak that gives Cards the pennant - Malta becomes independent from the United Kingdom. He was a member of the Chilean socialist government of Salvador Allende, overthrown in by Augusto Pinochet. Her father and uncle were probably dependent rulers under the overlordship of Wulfhere, King of Mercia.
At the same time Ethelwealh also received Christian baptism in the prescence of King Wulfhere and his court, this being presumably a condition of the marriage, which had been negotiated for important political and dynastic reasons. Oshere, who is recorded as king of the Hwicce was related to Queen Eafa, though he was probably not her son. She was married to Merewald c — c , king of the Magonsaete tribe, in Herefordshire, a younger son of Penda, king of Mercia, to whom she bore a son, Merefin, who died young, and three daughters.
As a means of healing this quarrel, King Egbert — acknowledged his guilt publicly, ordered the princes to be royally interred in the church of Wakering, and made further amends by granting as a wergild blood-price to Queen Eafa a large tract of land on the island of Thanet in Kent, where she founded the abbey of Minster dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Eafa later retired there and became a nun herself. Living in , she had died by , and was venerated as a saint Nov Her three daughters all became nuns, Mildrith, Abbess of Minster-in-Thanet, Mildburga, Abbess of Wenlock, and Mildgyth, who lived as a religious recluse. She was trained as a nurse in Belfast and later worked as the matron of an orphanage. She was appointed to serve as governess — to the four daughters of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, from whom they learned to speak English with a distinct Irish accent which later had to be corrected by their tutor Sydney Gibbs.
Margaretta left the Imperial service in and received an Imperial pension. She published the memoir Six Years at the Russian Court and continued to work as a governess. She later ran a boarding house and died in penury. She grew into a celebrated blonde beauty, making a name for herself on the Broadway stage in the role of Sadie Thompson in, Rain , the play written by John Colton, being adapted from a short story by W.
Somerset Maugham, and which role she played for two years — Eagels was married firstly to Morris Dubinsky, head of a travelling theatre show, to whom she bore a son, and secondly — to Ted Coy, a noted university football star, from whom she was later divorced. They had no children. Her private life was surrounded by intense publicity and media coverage. Jeanne Eagels died aged thirty-six Oct 3, , from an overdose of heroin. The tragic story of Jeanne Eagels She was educated in local secondary schools and then at Washington University in St Louis.
She was married to Patrick Eager. Mrs Eager had trained as a teacher and received considerable musical instruction, so that whilst her husband was appointed as head of the Brownsville Female Academy in Tennessee, she served as director of music there. She died June 18, at Clinton, Mississippi, aged eighty-four.
Eagle, Mary Kavanagh Oldham — — American suffrage campaigner, civil leader, and writer Mary Kavanagh Oldham was born Feb 4, in Kentucky and was raised there. She was trained as a schoolteacher and was employed as such prior to her marriage with James Philip Eagle, later the governor of Eagle Rock, Arkansas — She was the author of, The Congress of Women: Eahlswith of Flanders Ealswid — fl.
The name of her husband has never been identified, as neither has that of her sister. The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin recorded that Count Arnulf was the avunculus maternal uncle to Hildebrand but did not specify which sister was his mother. She was married to Alfred the Great , who succeeded his brother Aethelred I as king of Wessex Her marriage was an attempt to unite the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and thus protect them from Viking incursions.
Her husband presented her with the palace of Wantage, in Berkshire, his own birthplace, as her dower estate. Queen Eahlswith died Dec 5, and was regarded as a saint by the church. Her remains were later removed from Nunnaminster and reinterred within Winchester Cathedral. Eakins, Aimee — — Australian nurse Eakins was born in New Zealand and did her nursing training at Bendigo, in Victoria, graduating in Aimee Eakins died Feb 7, in Perth, aged seventy-five.
Ealawyn — c — after Anglo-Saxon princess Ealawyn was the elder daughter of the aetheling Ealhere, governor of Kent c — , and niece to king Aethelwulf of Wessex — , and was granddaughter to King Egbert. Ealawyn was married to a nobleman named Osbert, who was living in The couple had two children, both living in , Eadwald, who held estates at Brabourne and Chart, and Ealburga, the wife of Ealdred, who held estates at Bourne and Brabourne. Ealda — c — c Anglo-Saxon aristocrat and courtier Ealda was perhaps the daughter of Eadric, Earl of Wessex, and sister to Ethelwerd I the Historian c — c , they being descendants of King Aethelred I — , the brother of Alfred the Great.
Ealda was married to Ordmaer, earldorman of Wiltshire, whom she predeceased. Ealdgyth survived her husband, but died sometime before the Norman Conquest She was the mother of Gospatric c — c , earl of Northumbria and, who was deprived of Northumbria and was created earl of Dunbar instead, and of Maldred c — after , both of whom left descendants.
Through her younger son, Ealdgyth was ancestress of the important English feudal border clan, the Nevills, and also of George Washington, first President of the USA — She was married firstly c to Sighere, the Danish jarl earl of Northumbria, who was killed in battle, and secondly , at Malmesbury in Wiltshire, to King Edmund II Ironside to whom she bore two sons, Edmund, and Edward he was probably born posthumously.
Eventually they were sent to exile in Scandinavia to save their own lives.
Their ultimate journey into Hungary c , where her younger son would remain for another three decades, probably coincided with her own death. Though the church did not really sanction this custom, there is no indication that the children of Harold and Ealdgyth were not considered royal after their father became king It was in the interests of the Norman chroniclers of William the Conqueror to denigrate the Anglo-Saxon royal house in favour of the new dynasty.
Political reasons later caused Harold to repudiate Ealdgyth, and to make a more politically favourable dynastic marriage with Aldgyth of Mercia, the widow of Gruffyd, king of Wales. This undoubtedly legal marriage also pleased the church. She organized for his remains to be buried secretly at Waltham. The legend of her search for her former husband was the subject of the famous poem, The Battlefield of Hastings written by Heinrich Heine. Ealdgyth was still living in , when she was recorded at the owner of considerable property in the Domesday Book.
She then held estates in Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, and Suffolk and it names many of her vassals, including four women, which seems to indicate that King William did not confiscate all her estates. She died sometime after this date. Eames, Elizabeth Sara — — British archaeologist and scholar of mediaeval tiles Elizabeth Sara Graham was born June 24, in Northampton, the daughter of a chemist.
She attended school at Rugby, before studying at Newnham College, Cambridge, where she studied archaeology and anthropology. Eames painstakingly catalogued the large collection of mediaeval floor tiles, most of which were dated between the Norman Conquest and the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII — , and which were housed in the British Museum in London.
This collection had been purchased from the ninth Duke of Rutland She directed various archaeological digs, including those at Ramsey Abbey, Cambridgeshire — and at Haverholme Priory in Lincolnshire Elizabeth Eames died Sept 20, aged ninety. Eames, Emma Hayden — — American soprano Eames was born in Shanghai, China, the daughter of an international lawyer, and was taught singing from her earliest years. At the age of five , Eames travelled with her mother to Bath, Maine, amd to Boston, where she received further vocal instruction. Receiving further training under Mathilde Marchesi, the teacher of Nellie Melba in Paris — , she also undertook acting training at the Pluque there.
Eames married the painter Julian Story and appeared at the Metropolitan Opera in New York until , when she retired from the stage. Eames later remarried to the baritone Emilio de Gogorza with whom she toured in concert, and resided in Paris for some years. Eames later returned to reside in the USA Emma Eames died June 13, in New York aged eighty-six. Eames, Marion — — Welsh novelist and political activist Eames as born in Merseyside, England, and was raised at Dolgellau.
Actively involved in Welsh nationalism and politics, Eames worked as a regional organizer for Plaid Cymru, the political party which worked towards establishing an independent Welsh state within the European Union. Marion Eames died April 3, aged eighty-five.
There she met the architect Charles Eames — whom she married Together the couple established an outstanding career for themselves as an architectural design team, and they used their own home in Santa Monica as a showcase of their style of design, as well as establishing a highly popular range of furniture It was the first time this award had been won by a woman, and by a couple posthumously, for Charles had died the preceeding year. Eames, Rebecca — — American witchtrial victim Rebecca was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts Feb, and became the wife of Robert Eames , an immigrant from Bristol in England, to whom she bore eight children, including Nathaniel Eames — , of Boxford, Essex, Massachusetts.
During the notorious Salem witchtrials , Eames was accused of witchcraft, and imprisoned in Salem until her trial, though she was ultimately released. The stress of these events killed her husband Eames is believed to have saved her life through passing information against other victims.
Rebecca Eames survived the Salem trials by thirty years, and died at Boxford, Essex, aged eighty-one May 8, Eames, Samantha — — Australian archaeologist and author Eames attended university rose to become a specialist concerning the the history and artifacts of the Bronze Middle Age Period. She travelled and worked on archaelogical sites throughout the Middle East region, including important expeditions at Tell Brak in north eastern Syria and at Tell Beth Shean at Pella in Jordan.
Samantha Eames died young March 31, from a tumour of the brain, in Queensland, aged only thirty-three. Eanflaed — - c Anglo-Saxon queen and abbess Princess Eanflaed was born April 17, the eldest daughter of Edwin of Deira, King of Northumbria, and his second wife Aethelburh, the daughter of Aethelbert I, king of Kent, and was baptised a Christian when only a few weeks old June 5 , being the first Northumbrian to receive Christian baptism.
With the death of her father , she resided in Kent with her family. After her return to the Northumbrian court, she was married to Oswiu Oswy , King of Northumbria, the marriage designed to unite the two sections of Northumbria into one coherent kingdom. Oswiu granted Enflaed the estate of Gilling, near Richmond, as part of a dynastic reparation , where she built a monastery. Because of her efforts to instill the Roman ritual at the court, Pope Vitalian sent the queen a cross of gold, with a key, made from links that were believed to have formed part of the chains of St Peter and St Paul.
There she later became abbess, though she may have shared that office jointly with her daughter. Her daughter Osthryth became the ill-fated wife of Aethelred, King of Mercia. Queen Eanflaed took a prominent interest in ecclesiastical affairs, and was patron of Bishop Wilfred of York, whom she encouraged to become a monk, and whom she assisted so that he might make a pirlgrimage to Rome. The church regarded Eanflaed as a saint Nov 24 , but the later destruction of Whitby by the Danes has removed all trace of an early lirutgical cult of Eanflaed, though Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have her relics.
The late Welsh tradition that Eanflaed and Edwin were baptized by a certain Rum map Urbgen can be dismissed as fable. Eangyth — c — after Anglo-Saxon nun Eangyth was of noble birth and during her youth the mistress of Centwine, King of Wessex — to whom she bore a natural daughter Edburga Bucge c Eangyth took holy orders and was placed as abbess of the convent at Minster on the island of Sheppey in Kent, where she raised their daughter. Mother and daughter were on friendly terms with St Boniface, with whom they corresponded. Eangyth died before this could be accomplished, though her daughter later travelled there.
She was full-sister to kings, Earconbert — and Eormenraed — c Eanswyth steadfastly refused to consider a marriage arranged for her by her father with a Northumbrian prince, and she fled his court. Eventually he consented to her building a monastery at Folkestone after , where she was veiled as a nun and spent the remainder of her short life. It is recorded that her abbey lacked a supply of fresh water, which she is miraculously supposed to have recitified by producing a condhuit a mile long by striking the ground with her crozier.
Eanswyth died Aug 31, , aged barely twenty. Regarded a saint, her feast was observed annually Sept The convent was later refounded for Black Benedictine monks on the same site Part of it was swallowed up by the encroaching sea, and the house was removed to Folkestone. Its successor is the parish church of St Mary and St Eanswida, built in the twelfth century. A Saxon coffin discovered in the north wall containing the bones of a young woman, are thought to be her relics. She was sister to the Kentish rulers Egbert I — and Lothair — Earcongota accompanied her two aunts, Saelfryd and Ethelburga, to the abbey of Faremoutier, in Brie, France, where she was trained for life as a nun.
She was said to have been forewarned of her death by a visitation from angels, so that she made a farewell visit to each of the sisters of the abbey, recommending themselves to their prayers, and died the same night in great peace, aged only about seventeen. Her body was enshrined in the church of St Stephen, where her grave exuded a balsamic scent several days later, which was believed to attest to her great sanctity. At Meaux in France her feast was observed five days later Feb She was never an abbess as is sometimes maintained, and the alternate veneration date July 7 , whilst commonly given, is incorrect.
Eardley was best known for her simple portrayals of daily scenes and people, some from the tenements of the city, her own style being influenced by Vincent Van Gogh. For some years she worked at Catterline, near Aberdeen, which was the inspiration behind her most beautiful seascapes and landscapes, and she was elected to the Royal Scottish Academy just prior to her death Joan Eardley died aged only forty-two Aug 16, She was educated privately at home, and then abroad at Heidelberg, in Germany. With the completion of her education and her return to England she became closely involved with the Performing Right Society, establishing a reputation for herself as a popular lyricist, and was a devoted leader of community singing.
She married George Palmer Putnam but retained her own surname. She first attracted public attention when she became the first female passenger and log-keeper to fly the Atlantic Ocean, the flight leaving Newfoundland and arriving safely at Burry Point, in Wales, Britain June 17, Gaining her flying license after lessons from aviatrix Neta Snook, Earhart became the first woman to successfully cross the Atlantic alone May 20 — 21, Her body and that of her navigator, Fred Noonan were never recovered, and there has always remained much mystery and speculation, some reasonable, some completely outlandish, as to the manner of their deaths.
Her autobiography Last Flight , was edited posthumously by her husband. Earle, Alice Morse — — American historian, antiquarian and author Earle was born April 27, in Worcester, Massachussetts. She wrote concerning a variety of colonial subjects such as domestic life, the upbringing of children and the problems entailed, stage-coaches, and gardening.
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Alice Earle died aged fifty-seven Feb 16, Evelyn was married to Sir Henry Earle — , the third baronet — , whom she survived over two decades as the Dowager Lady Earle — Lady Earle died July 20, aged ninety-three. A noted society horticulturalist, Earle wrote several gardening works such as the best-seller, Pot-Pourri from a Surry Garden , which ran into eleven reprints during the first years, and which was followed by, More Pot-Pourri , A Third Pot-Pourri , and, Gardening for the Ignorant Earle, Merie — — American character actress Earle only began her film career in her seventh decade, and then embarked on a career in television at the age of eighty-two.
Several of her later movie credits were produced when she was over ninety, such as, Fatso and, Going Ape! Early, Eleanor — — American newspaper correspondent, journalist and author Early was born in Newton, Massachusetts. As well she produced several holiday travel guides such as New Orleans Holiday and Caribbean Holiday She was also the author of the, New England Cookbook Eleanor Early died Aug 25, aged seventy-seven. Earp — Residing in Newcastle, New South Wales, from , Earp established herself as a vocalist and artist of some considerable talent, and was president of the Queen Victoria Club Greatly interested in the field of domestic health care, Earp established first-aid and knitting classes in her own home at Point Piper, as well as providing basic instructions and lectures concerning home nursing.
Gertrude Earp died in Sydney, aged seventy-five Sept 5, Though technically an actress, she ahd resorted to prostitution to survive, and it was whilst on the way to Prescott in Arizona that she met up with Johnny Behan, sheriff of Yavapai County, who asked to marry her. Josephine at first refused, but changed her mind and lived with Behan at Tombstone in Arizona.
When he became involved with another woman, Josephine left him for the famous lawman Wyatt Earp This was the main reason behind the famous gunfight at the O. Corral in that year. Josephine Earp died Dec 20, in Los Angeles, aged eighty-three. She was trained as a teacher and after her marriage she later established the Ruth P. Eason Education Center in Maryland. Ruth Eason was the author of History of the town of Glen Burnie Easter, Margeurite Elizabeth — — Southern American poet Born in Leesburg, Virginia, she remained unmarried and died aged fifty-four.
Margeurite Easter published a collection of verse entitled Clytie, and Other Poems She wrote several novels such as, Broken Lights: A Novel , Gifts from God: Two Stories , The Southern Moon , and, A Strange Way Home , which concentrated on unlikely exotic themes and were not particularly well written.
Promised in marriage by her father to his Japanese military advisor Naniwa Kawashima, she was sent to Tokyo to be educated at the Matsumato School for Girls, and took the name Yochiko Kawashima She was married instead to Kanjurjab, a Mongolian prince, son of the mongol general Babojab, but deserted him four months later. The couple were later divorced Beautiful and engaging, she wore Western male attire, and attracted hordes of lovers, including Ryukichi Tanaka, the head of the Japanese Intelligence Service in Shanghai.
From she worked with Tanaka to provoke the Chinese against Japanese business, in order to give a pretext for Japanese agression. She was seen to publicly rejoice over the bombing of Shanghai and wore Japanese military uniform and held the rank of a commander. Sadistic and syphilitic, she was later arrested, tried and found guilty of treason. Such was the abhorrence of her crimes that she was refused a military execution and was beheaded March 25, in Peking Beijing. Eastlake , Caroline — fl. Her work was exhibited at over two dozen exhibitions throughout London, and an example is preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
She travelled extensively in Europe — and wrote letters to her mother from Reval, in Russia. This collection was entitled A Residence on the Shores of the Baltic , and achieved her her first literary recognition. It was followed by two novels The Jewess , and, Livonian Tales Letters addressed to my Sister Mourners concerning her ongoing grief at the death of her husband, which attracted her the favourable attention of Queen Victoria, and the editing and completion of the History of our Lord as Exemplified in Works of Art , which was written by Anna Jameson.
Carole Eastman died Feb 13, aged fifty-nine. Eastman, Crystal — — American suffragette and socialist Eastman was born into a comfortable family, which believed in equal education for women. This family support enabled her to graduate successfully from New York University with a law degree After her second marriage, Crystal Eastman resided in England.
She collaborated with her husband to write Wigwam Evenings Elaine Goodale Eastman died Feb 24, aged eighty-four. Julia Eastman died Jan 1, aged seventy-three. Eastman, Linda Anne — — American librarian Eastman was born in Oberlin, Ohio, the daughter of a grocer, and was educated in Cleveland. She trained as a teacher and remained unmarried. With the financial aid of Andrew Carnegie, Eastman assisted with the establishment and organization of the School of Library Science at Western Reserve University Eastman was ultimately appointed as director of the school , becoming the first woman to head a metropolitan library system in the USA.
She then established a municipal reference service and an information bureau. Linda Eastman retired in and was the author of, Portrait of a Librarian: William Howard Brett , a biography of her mentor. She received the Carnegie Corporation award for the fostering of education and the Cleveland Medal for Public Service , whilst the Eastman Reading Garden, was named in her honour. Linda Eastman died April 5, in Cleveland, aged ninety-five. Eastman, Mary Henderson — — American traveller and author Mary Henderson was born in Warrenton, Virginia, and married the army officer, painter, and, book illustrator Seth Eastman — , who provided illustrations for some of her own works.
Mary Henderson Eastman died aged sixty-one. After a short stint with the Hamburg Municipal Theatre, Easton joined the Metropolitan Opera in New York, where she remained over ten years — Fluent in four languages, she was a versatile performer, and had over one hundred roles in her repertoire, being particularly acclaimed in the roles of Brunnhilde, Carmen, Turandot, and Isolde. She later briefly rejoined the Metropolitan, but had retired before the outbreak of World War II Florence Easton died Aug 15, in New York. Eastwick, Henrietta — fl. After the death of her husband, Henrietta continued the business on her own and registered her mark Her second mark was registered seven years later , and finally she registered jointly with one William Eastwick , who was probably her son over a successful career that had spanned three decades by then.
Eastwood, Alice — — American botanist Eastwood was born in Toronto, Canada, the daughter of a public health official turned real estate agent. She was trained as a high school teacher, but her first love was botany. Alice Eastwood resigned from her teaching career and produced, A Popular Flora of Denver, Colorado , before removing to California, where she became an assistant at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, and founded the California Botanical Club. She became involved in extensive field work and indentification and climbed Mt Whitney Alice then published, A Handbook of the Trees of California With her assistant, John Thomas Howell, she founded and edited the journal, Leaflets of Western Botany and assisteed with the editing of the journal, Erythea , founded by Willis Jepson.
She immigrated to America with her family, and was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, where she married Isaac Easty. She was sister to Rebecca Nourse and Sarah Cloyce, who also became victims to the Salem witchtrial hysteria. Mrs Easty was accused by Ann Putnam and others and was arrested, but was quickly released because of her respectable standing within the community May 18, However, she was re-arrested two days later due to fresh accusations. Easty and her sister Cloyce petitioned the court, their minister, and Governor Phipps presenting their case. Despite this, Mary Easty was found guilty and publicly hanged Sept 22, , aged fifty-eight.
Her family was later compensated with twenty pounds from the colonial government for her wrongful execution She was married to the famous boxing promoter, Cal Eaton, who ran his business from Los Angeles in California, and became involved in the business herself during the war years , and travelled wideley throughout the US. With the death of her husband , Aileen took over the running of his business concerns, and organized over ten thousand boxing bouts at the Los Angeles Olympic Auditorium.
She retired in and was posthumously inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame , the first woman to be so honoured. A Book List for Boys and Girls Eaton herself wrote, Reading with Children Anne Eaton died May 5, aged ninety. Eaton, Charlotte Anne Waldie — — British traveller Charlotte Eaton left reminiscences of her visit to France at the time of the battle of Waterloo, later published in London as, The days of battle, Quatre Bras and Waterloo by an Englishwoman resident at Brussels in June, … It was republished thirty years later under the title, Waterloo days; the narrative of an Englishwoman resident in Brussels in June, Eaton, Doris — b.
Like her sisters she received dance training in Washington, D. She was the elder sister to Winnifred Eaton. Well educated at home by her parents, Edith had articles publiched in local newspapers such as the, Montreal Star and the, Daily Witness from an early age. Edith Eaton died April 7, in Montreal, aged forty-nine.
Eaton, Elizabeth — fl. Later, her son John joined her in the business, and they were registered together Examples of her work, most notably a Victorian salt spoon and asparagus tongs are preserved in the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington D. The Life of Madame Roland Other works included, The Flame: George Washington, Man and Patriot Jeanette Eaton died Feb 19, aged seventy-five. Eaton worked consistently all of her career, and appeared in several films aged well into her eighties, such as, The Attic , Street Music , and, Crackers Marjorie Eaton died April 21, in Hollywood, aged eighty-five.
Eaton, Mary — — American stage and film actress Eaton was born Jan 29, in Norfolk, Virginia, and was trained for the stage from childhood, receiving dance instruction in Washington D. Mary Eaton died Oct 10, of liver failure in Hollywood, California, aged forty-seven. Eaton spent twenty years — as an artist with the New York Botanical Gardens. Later returning to England , her work was also exhibited with the National Book League in London Eaton is best known for producing the illustrations for the famous botanical volume The Cactaceae — produced by Britten and Rose.
Examples of her work are preserved in the Smithsonian Institute and at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. Eaton, Pearl — — American stage actress, choreographer and dance specialist Eaton was born Aug 1, in Norfolk, Virginia. She was the elder sister of Mary and Doris Eaton, with whom she received dance instruction in Washington D. This was followed by performances in The Passing Show and Sinbad. During this time Eaton was married to violinist Harry Levant, to whom she bore a daughter.
Pearl Eaton then worked for the, Ziegfeld Follies — before working for the theatrical company of Charles Dillingham. Her second husband was the oil magnate Dick Enderley. She became a recluse during the latter part of her life, and sufferred from alcoholism. Pearl Eaton was found murdered in her apartment Sept 10, aged sixty. The crime was never solved. She was married firstly to John Timberlake, and secondly to John Henry Eaton, a prominent Democrat leader, who held the post of secretary of state for war under President Andrew Jackson.
Famously beautiful, she caused a furore in polite society, despite her friendship with the future president, Martin Van Buren, because of her lowly background, and because of her premarital relations with her second husband, which were well known. This social outcasting caused a presidential cabinet crisis, and President Jackson was forced to re-organize her cabinet in order to remove the ringleaders.
Eventually her husband was forced to resign his post but he accepted the position of ambassador to Spain. Peggy accompanied him there — , where she achieved great social success and acceptance. With the death of Eaton , Peggy later formed a romantic liasion with a much younger Italian dancing instructor, who evenutally deserted her for her granddaughter.
Her own, Autobiography of Peggy Eaton, was not published till fifty years after her death Quaintance was the author of an anecdotal history of the Metropolitan Opera whilst on tour entitled, Opera Caravan Her last work Sutherland and Bonynge: Quaintance Eaton died in Manhattan, New York. Eaton trained as a teacher and worked in the Cherokee Nation schools and at the Cherokee Female Seminary. With her later return to Oklahoma she took up the appointment as superintendent of schools in Rogers County, and published articles concerning the history of her people. Rachel Eaton remained unmarried.
Eaton, Susan — — American academic Eaton was born July 9, and attended various colleges before obtaining the appointment as assistant professor of public policy at the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government. She later became a nursing home researcher at Harvard, and strongly supported the rights of ordinary workers. She wrote articles and treatises concerning the role of women within the union movement, as well as sexual equality in the workplace and the successful management of health care issues. Susan Eaton died Dec 30, in Boston, Massachusetts, aged forty-six.
Eaton, Winnifred — — American author Eaton was born Aug 21, in Montreal, Quebec, in Canada, the daughter of a British merchant and a Chinese mother, the adopted daughter of British missionaries, and was the sister to Edith Eaton. Winnifred Eaton became writing articles for local newspapers and later left home for Kingston in Jamaica , where she worked as a stenographer for a newspaper, before returning to the USA to work as a typist in Chicago, Illinois. She also wrote an intriguing semi-autobiographical novel entitled Me, A Book of Remembrance , which was incredibly popular.
Eaton was married twice, leaving four children from her first marriage. She resided for several years at Calgary, in Alberta, Canada — before returning to live and work in New York, where she wrote screenplays for the movie industry. Winnifred Eaton died April 8, at Butte in Montana, aged seventy-eight. Ebba never married and became abbess of the double monastery of Coldingham, near Berwick.
In a group of Vikings, led by the sons of Ragnar Ladbrok, arrived at the mouth of the Tweed River, and began laying waste to the surrounding countryside. Their intention was to reach the rich abbey of Coldingham nearby. Ebba assembled all the sisters in the cloister and then, at her own urging and example, they disfigured themselves by cutting off their noses and upper lips, in order to preserve their chastity.
The Vikings broke into the chapter-house, and, disgusted by the condition of the nuns, set fire to the building and killed them all. Ebba was venerated by the church April 2. Widowed in , she was Dowager Baroness Ebbisham — She was the mother of Sir Rowland Roberts Blades, second and last Baron Ebbisham — , at whose death the title and baronetcy became extinct, and three daughters, including Hon. Lady Ebbisham died Nov 2, aged eighty-three. Mrs Ebden worked tirelessly for various worthy causes aimed at helping hospitals and the general care and welfare of women and children.
Agnes Ebden died Jan 31, Eberardi, Teresa — fl. Teresa also performed in Soho and at various benefit concerts in The musician and composer Charles Burney, father of the diarist Fanny Burney, was much impressed by the simplicity and innocence of her performances. Ada Abbott was married to Carl Theodore Eberhard. Ada Eberhard was the founder of the Queen Victoria Hospital in Launceston and was appointed as first tresurer.
Ada Eberhard Dec 22, died in Launceston, aged sixty-four. She was married at Oettingen, when aged over thirty, to Prince Albrecht Ernst I of Oettingen-Oettingen — , as his second wife. She was princess consort for only one year — and died childless at Oettingen Aug 19, , aged thirty-two. Princess Eberhardine Sophia left three children,. Eberhardt, Isabelle — — Swiss traveller and author Isabelle Eberhardt was born near Geneva, Switzerland, the illlegitimate daughter of a tutor, and the wife of a Russian general.